Bouillon Plant (Cordia verbenacea)

Description

Bouillon plant or erva baleeira, Cordia verbenacea, is a perennial herb and potent medicinal plant. This plant seems relatively rare in cultivation and is quite hard to find information on growing, yet there is much literature describing the medicinal properties. Bouillon plant is a small tree, growing up to twelve feet tall and wide. The scent and flavor of the leaves is almost exactly like soup stock, most closely resembling chicken noodle soup, in my opinion. This plant is extremely medicinal; its antibiotic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiseptic and diuretic properties are utilized to treat colds, flu, fever and coughs, pneumonia, parasitic diseases and infections, rheumatism and arthritis, insomnia, malaria, skin diseases, ulcers and bleeding, all while promoting muscle relaxation, pain relief, digestion, and overall healing! This plant is used topically and internally in its leafy form, and made into an essential oil to be used medicinally, as well.

Propagation

Bouillon plant is easily grown from cuttings. Woody cuttings take more readily than non-woody cuttings.

The plant flowers profusely and sets some small red berries, I have not yet done any experimentation to determine if these seeds are viable or not.

Cuttings ready for planting

Care

Bouillon plant thrives in any location, part shade to full sun. I have started cuttings in pots as well as directly in the soil in a few different places and they’ve all taken off. This plant is very vigorous and is always full of edible leaves. Flowering does not affect the taste of the leaves, so this one can be maintained in a less diligent manner than some other herbs.

Eating

This plant may be eaten raw or cooked. I personally think the leaves are a bit intense raw. We typically take leaves, chop them coarsely and add them early in cooking, right after the onions are sautéed. We cook them with beans and soup quite often; the bouillon plant is actually one of our most used herbs.

Where to obtain planting materials

This seems to be a really rare one. As far as I know, only a handful of people have this plant on the island. It should be more widely grown!

My Garden

I first discovered this plant while visiting and working on a farm in Kohala with a friend. It was planted directly next to the house and when we brushed up against it, I was instantly intrigued. When we asked what the plant was, no one knew. I asked for a cutting to try and propagate, as seeds weren’t on the plant at the time. I started two cuttings and although they both took, I kept them in pots awhile, as I wasn’t sure what the plant was or where I would want to plant it. Those plants eventually rooted into the ground and I decided to pull one up and go plant it out in the field. My friend, who also got a cutting, grew his out a little bit and posted photos in a few online forums, asking for help with identification. We finally got an ID and were able to research and learn a little bit more about it.

I’ve since started eating it regularly, and just a few days before press time, experienced the medicinal properties of it firsthand. I recently got quite a few wasp stings and was very swollen, so I decided to try the plant on my hand, rather than my regular injury go-to (comfrey). I didn’t fully cover my swollen hand with the poultice and after I took off the covering I noticed half of my hand was still swollen and the other half completely normal. At this point, I was convinced of the medicinal properties and covered my hand for one full day; after that, the swelling was gone and my hand was back to normal. Wow, the magical properties of plants! This plant is another amazing addition to anyone’s homestead. The plant fascinates anyone who smells it, and the medicinal properties are on par with comfrey, another magical herb; this one is just a bit more pleasant to consume!

Bouillon plant planted with taro and papaya

Bouillon plant planted with: taro, stick oregano, papaya and tzimbalo

Happy Gardening!

Black Turmeric (Curcuma caesia)

Description

Black Turmeric, Curcuma caesia, is a potent perennial medicinal herb. This plant and its amazing blue-green colored rhizomes have an agreeable odor, but intense flavor, somewhat reminiscent of turpentine. Black turmeric goes dormant during part of the year, reverting to underground storage rhizomes to wait out the winter. Mid-spring, the plant shoots up bright pink and yellow flowers, and leaves up to four feet tall, bearing a red stripe along the midrib, follow a few weeks later. Common medicinal applications include use as an anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-asthmatic, antioxidant booster that can also soothe gastric issues, relax muscles, ease joint pain, control bleeding, and speed up healing of cuts and wounds. Pretty much a cure all!

Propagation

Separate roots into rhizomes, mother rhizomes and storage roots. Typically, turmeric is planted only from the mother rhizomes; the regular rhizomes are sold or used. If you only have access to regular rhizomes or are trying to propagate as many plants as you can, growing from the rhizomes is fine. Break them into sections where you have at least three eyes per rhizome. Plant them into the soil three to four inches deep and await their emergence.

Thus far, I have not figured out what to do with the storage roots; they do not grow, and I haven’t experimented with utilizing them. I usually only use the rhizomes.

Regular Rhizomes on top left. Mother Rhizomes bottom. Storage Roots top right.

Care

Black turmeric is grown exactly the same as regular turmeric. Take a rhizome and stick it in the ground, await its emergence in the spring and then fertilize. Once it goes dormant in the winter (leaves die back completely), dig it up and enjoy its beauty and taste!

Eating

In my opinion, rhizomes are too intense to use for cooking. We do a simple tincture and take a dropper full every night before bed. I’ve heard of people doing honey infusions as well.

To make the tincture, we take freshly washed rhizomes and add them to a food processor to chop finely. We then soak it in Hawaiian Okolehao (moonshine made from Ti leaf and sugarcane) for three to four weeks, agitating/shaking once a day, then strain and jar the liquid.

Where to obtain planting materials

I’ve seen this plant for sale a few times at plant sales, but it still seems to be oddly rare on the Big Island. I think because of its intensity, many people do not know how to use it.

My Garden

I’ve been growing black turmeric for a few years now; it wasn’t until this past year that I started consuming it on a regular basis. Previously, I only grew it as an ornamental because I couldn’t find a way to utilize the rhizomes appropriately. My mom’s co-worker shared with us her recipe for the tincture in exchange for some rhizomes. This simple exchange gave us the potential to utilize this amazingly medicinal plant. I believe the sugarcane in the moonshine smoothes out the intensity of the turmeric flavor, allowing it to be diluted enough to be enjoyable. We haven’t experimented with other alcohols, yet, but I’m already convinced the moonshine is the way to go.

This plant is highly ornamental and thrives without much attention. Everyone should be growing it!

Black Turmeric growing with: Acerola, cassava, mexican sunflower, awapuhi, sugar cane, mocambo, brazilian cherry, rollinia, mulberry, ooray, blackberry jam fruit, Ugni, podocarpus and cook pine.

Black Turmeric growing with: Acerola, cassava, mexican sunflower, awapuhi, sugar cane, mocambo, brazilian cherry, rollinia, mulberry, ooray, blackberry jam fruit, Ugni, podocarpus and cook pine.

Black Turmeric growing with: ti leaf, vetiver, pigeon pea, belembe, triple crown thornless blackberry, culantro, tamarillo, kumquat, poha, bell peppers, and citronella grass

Happy Gardening!

Hawaiian Hot Pepper (Capsicum frutescens)

Description

The Hawaiian Hot Pepper, Capsicum frutescens, is the classic local hot pepper. These peppers are quite small, but hold a perfect punch of heat. Plants are prolific five foot tall shrubs that live for two to three years and produce an amazing abundance of fruits. This pepper is most Hawaiian gardeners’ go-to pepper, as it’s always available to quickly grab and add to any dish. Hot peppers are nutritious and good for our general health, due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endorphin-releasing properties. This is the pepper added to make “chili peppa watah,” a traditional Hawaiian condiment.

Propagation

Hawaiian Hot Peppers are grown from seed. Simply open up a pepper and scrape out the seeds. Either cover very lightly with potting soil or surface sow. (Check out my seed propagation entry for more info.) Typically, peppers are slow at the start of their life; after a few weeks in the nursery, they start growing rapidly. I usually add five to ten seeds per pot and cull them as they reach two to three inches in height. I leave only one pepper plant per pot and then transplant to the garden after they are about five inches tall. At this stage, plant them in the garden as close to the kitchen as possible.

Care

Once established, these plants are extremely hardy and can pretty much grow on their own. They like as much sun as you can give them, but will do fine with partial sun. Regular harvesting promotes more fruit set, as does regular fertilizing. Fruit flies and/or pepper weevils can be a bit of a problem with peppers; to reduce losses from insects, harvest peppers when turning orange and allow them to sit a day or two to turn red before consumption. (I eat them orange sometimes as well.) They can also be pruned heavily and tend to re-sprout just fine.

Eating

In my opinion, one pepper per person in a meal is the perfect heat level. When I make large batches of salsa, I use two Hawaiian Hots, and one for a small batch.

Where to obtain planting materials

These peppers are regularly sold at nurseries, or you can buy some peppers from the farmers’ market and plant those seeds. Everyone should grow this pepper!

My Garden

I’ve grown Hawaiian Hot Peppers for over four years. This past year, I trialed over twenty different pepper varieties; the Hawaiian Hot still persists as one of my choice peppers, as they seem to be the least affected by fruit flies and almost always have fruit available for consumption. They become strong, sturdy bushes and can hold their own against competing vegetation. I like to keep three or four pepper plants close to the kitchen and have more in other places further away. Peppers are, in fact, one of my most used ingredients in the kitchen. They are so easy to grow, it’s almost insane not to grow them yourself! Peppers are quite ornamental as well, so they add a splash of beauty in any location. Grow them, eat them, and share your overabundance!

Hawaiian Hot Pepper with: tangerine, avocado, tangelo, dwarf maoli bananas, papaya, canna, bell peppers, lemba, kalo, lemongrass and ti.

Hawaiian Hot Pepper with: tangerine, avocado, tangelo, dwarf maoli bananas, papaya, canna, bell peppers, lemba, kalo, lemongrass and ti.

Hawaiian Hot Pepper with: tangerine, avocado, tangelo, dwarf maoli bananas, papaya, canna, bell peppers, lemba, kalo, lemongrass and ti.

Happy Gardening!

Canna (Canna edulis)

Description

Canna, Canna edulis, also known as Achira and Queensland arrowroot, is a highly productive, hardy, perennial food source. The rhizomes are the main food product, however, immature seeds and young growing shoots may also be harvested for consumption. Canna grows six to eight feet tall and produces abundant flowers and leaves. The rhizomes are high in starch content, yet are easily digestible. This plant is closely related to ornamental canna plants; however, this plant has been domesticated as a food source for its starchy roots for thousands of years. Canna thrives in poor soils and waterlogged conditions and rhizomes can live underground for years without becoming too woody or inedible. This is the perfect sow-it-and-forget-it plant; leave it in the ground and dig as you desire a starchy food in times of need. Not to mention this plant is highly ornamental!

Propagation

Canna is typically grown from root division: digging and splitting of rhizomes and replanting in new locations. Make sure propagation material has at least two buds for new growth.

This particular variety does grow true from seed, however, not all varieties do, especially where cross-pollination with ornamental varieties can occur. Scarification is commonly used to speed seed germination.

Canna ripe seed pods

Canna Seedlings

Canna root division propagules

Care

Canna is a carefree plant. It will grow in light shade or full sun. Canna may be used as a mulch source and likes to be regularly pruned to remove exhausted or older growth.

Harvest of rhizomes may begin as early as four months from root division. Ideal harvest time is six to ten months after planting.

Eating

Young tender shoot tips may be consumed as a vegetable.

Rhizomes are cooked and consumed like a potato, typically boiled or baked. A traditional method for preparation is to bake them underground whole for 12 hours, then scoop out the insides and consume. The starch may be extracted to make a flour to use as a thickener. Some Asian cultures even make clear noodles with the flour.

Where to obtain planting materials

I’ve only met one other person growing this plant intentionally on our island. I have seen this plant one other time on a hike to a Puna beach. Besides that, I’ve only seen the ornamental varieties around. Try an internet search, or ask around to see if it’s more commonly grown in your area.

My Garden

I looked for this plant for a long time; I finally stumbled upon it while working at a friend’s farm. He has many varieties of canna growing. One day, I asked him about this one colorful canna plant. He said, “that’s achira from the Andes!” Little did he know I’ve been searching for this particular species for years! He said he only had one plant and I could take some seeds to propagate it. Luckily, it was in a lone location in his agroforest so it wasn’t cross-pollinated with any other species. I took my few seeds and started a tray of them. Within a few weeks’ time, I had 32 little keiki awaiting a spot in the ground! I eagerly planted them out at two different sites and feeling the need to spread these hard to find genetics I gave some away to some trusted gardener friends. At this point, I’ve collected so many of the seeds from my plants that I don’t even know what to do with them! I will continue to plant them throughout my agroforest in the wettest locations where some other plants don’t want to grow so I can create patches of food insurance for later. My friend’s farm is located in a fairly dry environment; once I took those seeds and planted them in a wet location, they became extremely prolific!

Canna with: tangerine, avocado, tangelo, dwarf maoli bananas, papaya, hawaiian hot peppers, bell peppers, lemba, kalo, lemongrass and ti.

Before pruning and mulching.

After pruning and mulching.

Happy Gardening!

Winter Squash (Cucurbita spp.)

Description

Winter squash is an amazing, long-lived, productive, nutrient dense food source. Winter squash is a broad-term descriptive regarding the hardness of the fruit skin, indicating that it may be stored for long periods of time. For a tropical climate, Cucurbita moschata and Cucurbita maxima are the preferred growing species due to their vigor and hardiness to pests. These squash are sprawlers; vines can grow over 30 feet long. Tendrils provide an ability to climb if allowed, and vines typically produce a good amount of biomass in the form of large, broad leaves to outcompete unwanted plants. There are many varieties, colors, shapes and sizes of fruits. I’ve grown fruits as small as a pound and as large as twelve pounds. The immature fruits, young tender growing tips, seeds and the flowers of the plant are also edible. Fully mature fruits will last a few months in storage. These plants are vigorous and tasty!

Propagation

Winter squash is typically grown from seed. Open a ripe fruit and put the seeds into the ground, preferably direct sown in the place where you want it to grow.

Cuttings with three nodes and a small leaf are sometimes also used for propagation.

Care

Heavily amend the site you wish to grow the squash. Add as much manure, compost, fertilizer and mulch as you can before planting seeds. Squash are very hungry. The more food you supply to them at the time of planting, the more vigorous they will be. (Most literature I’ve read says there is no need to feed them while growing, just at the time of planting). Squash vines are happiest in full sun or light shade. Allow a large space to sprawl, or manage weekly and aim into desired areas. I’ve even seen squash growing extremely well climbing to the top canopy of citrus trees and producing large squash dangling in the air!!!

Male and female flowers are separate, but on the same plant (monoecious). Male flowers typically bloom alone for the first few weeks, and then female flowers emerge. A lot of the time, regular garden pollinators will pollinate the flowers; however, hand pollinating increases the chances of fruit set.

Usually vines tend to produce one squash at a time, unless they root at another node along their vine, which allows them to tap into more nutrients and sustain more fruits.

Male Flower

Female Flower

Female Flower. Notice the tiny unpollinated fruit attached to base of flower

Eating

Flowers and vine tips are edible; they should be picked early when very tender.

Immature fruit is best picked after the flower has fallen off.

The tendril closest to a fruit will brown when the fruit is mature and ripe. Usually the squash will change color and turn from a greenish to a yellow-tan color. Ripe fruits may be eaten with or without skin, and cooked by baking, roasting, boiling, steamed, or sauté.

Seeds may be cooked, or made into an oil extraction.

Tender vine tips ready for eating

Where to obtain planting materials

For the best locally-adapted genetics, it is most appropriate to collect fruits for eating from the local farmers’ market. A lot of time, most squash the vendors sell is homegrown by that vendor; you should ask if that’s the case. Then go home, cut it up, save the seeds, eat the food. If it is delicious (usually most are!), then plant those seeds. You may never be able to identify the squash itself, unless the vendor tells you the variety, but you will have good genetics.

Alternately, buy a seed pack from a seed company. But understand, it will potentially be less productive and more susceptible to various tropical pests. Remember to stick to the preferred species.

My Garden

Besides these past few months, I’ve had pretty limited success with growing winter squash. The majority of my previous fruits came from volunteer vines from my compost piles; anywhere I intentionally planted seeds, the keiki never got vigorous. First, it was the slugs/snails eating all the new growth, then the caterpillars boring into the immature fruits before fruit set, then the lack of sunlight, and finally, the lack of pollinators. The simplest solution for all these issues is adding more fertilizer; the more vigorous the plant, the more likely it is to put off more flowers to be potentially pollinated. I now have squash growing in a few different areas, and as I do my rounds, I regularly see little fruits growing! This is an incredible food source that basically maintains itself once it is going strong. More winter squash is the answer to a self-sufficient lifestyle.

Squash grown with: coconut, banana, sugarcane, cosmos, blue basil, bush basil, edible hibiscus, Plectranthus barbatus, and coleus

Squash grown with: coconut, banana, sugarcane, cosmos, blue basil, bush basil, edible hibiscus, Plectranthus barbatus, and coleus

Squash grown with: coconut, banana, sugarcane, cosmos, blue basil, bush basil, edible hibiscus, Plectranthus barbatus, and coleus

Squash grown with: banana, sugarcane, hot peppers, chico sapodilla, papaya, sweet potato, crotalaria, and cosmos

Squash with: Thai Basil, Catnip, Amorphophallus konjac, Shallots, Tithonia rotundifolia, Ginger, Boesenbergia rotunda, Sesbania javanica, Pigeon Pea, ele ele banana, Broadleaf Papaya, Cosmos, Sugar Cane, Kava, Kalo, Jobs Tears, Cassava, Alternanthera dentata

Happy Gardening!

Yacón (Smallanthus sonchifolius)

Description

Yacón, Smallanthus sonchifolius, is a sweet, crispy, and tasty perennial root crop. Despite its status as a perennial, yacón is typically treated like an annual, dug up once a year and replanted. Yacón grows to heights of six to eight feet tall and forms as a clumping herb. The storage roots are the most sought-after product. However, the main stem may also be eaten as a cooked vegetable. The storage roots are high in fructooligosaccharides (commonly used as a sugar alternative) and contain very few calories. Yacón is a very beautiful and productive plant!

Propagation

Yacón is propagated by offsets produced at ground level near the top of the crown. It may also be grown from stem cuttings.

Harvest when stems die back

Clean and separate larger storage roots from offsets

Plant offsets below soil surface

Care

Yacón likes loose soil, and prefers full sun or light shade. Once planted and weeded a few times, the plant will take care of itself. You may harvest within the first year, or leave the plant to grow multiple seasons for a much larger harvest.

Eating

Yacón is harvested once the stems die back and energy is transferred to the storage roots, usually six months to one year after planting. Storage roots are left out in the sun for a few days or weeks to sweeten up. Once the skin has slightly wrinkled, it can be peeled off and the roots consumed. Yacón is usually eaten raw, but is sometimes boiled or baked, made into a drink, or made into a sugar substitute (yacón syrup). Storage roots stored in a cool place will last a few months before deteriorating.

Where to obtain planting materials

I’ve seen yacón for sale at a few plant sales and quite a few individuals on island grow it. Ask someone growing it for some offsets for propagation.

My Garden

I’ve been growing yacón for over two years now. The initial places I planted it were too shady and the soil was too shallow. The plants would develop but not grow to their full potential, leaving me with a tiny harvest. I learned I needed to give them more sun and a larger root area. This year, I decided to dig up just two plants and allow the rest to go another year before harvest, in hopes that I will get a larger crop next season. The two plants gave me a small harvest but lots of propagation material; I will plant those out in more fluffed soil and fertilize more in order to gain larger harvests. I got my propagation materials from a friend’s farm in Kohala where they grow huge yacón plants with massive yields, so it does have the potential to be a highly productive crop. It just needs a little more cultivation on my end. Ever learning as I go along!

Happy Gardening!

Clove Basil (Ocimum gratissimum)

Description

Clove basil or bush basil, Ocimum gratissimum, is a large-statured, potent, perennial basil. This plant grows up to eight feet tall and wide and lives for multiple years. The leaves, flowers and seeds are edible, and are used medicinally to aid in digestion, soothing sore throats and skin irritants, as well as to relieve headaches, fever and common sicknesses. The leaves are used as insect repellent and natural disinfectant, and are commonly made into an essential oil.

Clove Basil. Ocimum gratissimum Leaves and FlowersClove Basil. Ocimum gratissimum Leaves and flowers 2

Propagation

Clove basil is usually propagated from woody cuttings. Seeds can be sown, but germination rate may be very low.

Clove Basil. Ocimum gratissimum Woody Stem

Woody trunk

Care

This plant is pretty much carefree and will grow in light shade or full sun.

Eating

Leaves are used in soups and stews; they are typically added during cooking, and again at the end of preparation, lightly cooked for garnish. Hand tearing the leaves, instead of cutting with a knife, allows the leaves to retain their color and not turn brown. Leaves are also used as a tea. Flavor is almost exactly like the spice, clove.

Where to obtain planting materials

Ask a friend growing clove basil for some cuttings.

My Garden

I’m always on the lookout for new-to-me herbs, spices and vegetables. Clove basil came to me while visiting some friends’ farms on the northern end of the island. I get really excited when I find large, strong, and fast-growing plants to add to my repertoire. These plants play an important role in covering soils and aiding in complexity within ecosystems. At this point, I really enjoy mixing clove basil, coleus, cassava and Plectranthus barbatus together with trees in a nice perennial polyculture. All of these plants can be cut back at any point for mulching to feed the tree and all provide numerous beneficial activities. Multi-diverse, multi-strata systems follow nature as closely as possible; it seems logical to follow her example!

Clove basil grown with: cassava, sweet potato, taro, pigeon pea, sugarcane, roselle, coleus, ti, kava, turmeric, Plectranthus barbatus, banana, cocona, comfrey, edible hibiscus, Xanthosoma brasiliense, and kukui

Happy Gardening!

Cosmos (Cosmos caudatus)

Description

Cosmos, wild cosmos or Ulam Raja, Cosmos caudatus, is an incredibly productive edible/medicinal plant. This plant is an annual, but can be regularly managed as a short-lived perennial. The leaves are eaten for their high mineral and antioxidant content, which is believed to contribute to increased blood circulation, bone strength and general good health. Wild cosmos creates a lot of biomass and can reach up to nine feet tall by about four feet wide. The plant starts off slowly, growing to a height of about two feet in the first few weeks, and then takes off to become the giant it wants to be. They usually don’t start flowering until they are four to five feet tall and flower continually until their death.

 Propagation

Wild cosmos is grown from its prolific seeds. Seeds are sown at the soil surface. However, they will sprout through fine textured mulch as well.

Care

This plant is carefree. Sprinkle around seeds, wait and watch them grow. Their lifecycle seems to be about nine months if left unchecked. To prolong their life, I usually allow them to seed heavily for a little while, collect all the seeds and then cut the plant back to waist height. This will spark them to regrow vigorously, again; this process can be done continuously.

Eating

The tender young leaves and stems are commonly eaten raw. Eat from a plant that has not yet flowered as the flavor becomes more intense after flowering. If managed by regularly pruning off flower stalks, the plant will continue to grow leafy material suitable for consumption.

Where to obtain planting materials

Ask a friend for some seeds. I’ve never seen this plant for sale, and I only recently discovered that it’s edible, and what its scientific name is.

My Garden

Wild cosmos is one of my staple biomass-creating plants in my systems. I typically create successional cover crop mixes creating a continuous blanket of biomass to protect soils and to create living mulch to cut and feed to my other cropped plants. Where I have it growing as a hedge, it helps with weed suppression, by shading and preventing germination of less desirable seedlings. Cosmos flowers attract lots of bees and other pollinators!

Happy Gardening!

 

 

Shallots (Allium cepa var. aggregatum)

Description

Shallots, Allium cepa var. aggregatum, are tasty perennial clumping bulbs that resemble garlic and/or onion. Shallots grow one to two feet tall. Bulbs, leaves and flowers are edible and may be eaten cooked or raw. Shallots have a very interesting growth habit; they grow from a single small bulb that grows larger before creating multiple small bulbs that spread out from the original, forming a clump.

Propagation

Individual bulbs are planted just under the soil surface six inches apart. I haven’t found solid evidence on seed production and am currently running experiments to see if they will set seed. Rumor has it that true shallots do not set seed, but onion-like shallots do produce seed. Somewhat confusing.

Purchased Shallots separated and ready to plant

Plant with rootlets down and just below soil surface

Care

Shallots prefer full sun, a fairly weed free zone and good drainage. Growing in polyculture works well as they will fill a small tight niche while other plants may grow taller or wider nearby.

Eating

Shallot bulbs are delicious! Green leaves may be eaten exactly like green onions. If harvesting for leaves, remove a few from multiple plants to obtain a harvest rather than take all from one plant, which may set back or damage that individual.

Where to obtain planting materials

Shallot bulbs may be purchased from the farmers market or grocery store, found near the onions or garlic. Although sold for consumption, you may plant them to grow and produce more.

My Garden

Onions and garlic have always been two of my favorite and most used staple ingredients throughout my life. When I moved to Hawaii, I realized I could no longer grow those plants, as we do not quite have the right conditions (cold) for them to grow effortlessly. In my search for a replacement for those two, I came across the shallot, which I’ve decided is the tastiest replacement! This is the first time I’ve grown shallots and I’m super excited as I watch them grow. I stuck some bulbs into the ground about two months ago and now they are clumping out and starting to flower! How exciting!

Shallots with: Thai Basil, Catnip, Amorphophallus konjac, Squash, Tithonia rotundifolia, Ginger, Boesenbergia rotunda, Sesbania javanica, Pigeon Pea, ele ele banana, Broadleaf Papaya, Cosmos, Sugar Cane, Kava, Kalo, Jobs Tears, Cassava, Alternanthera dentata

Happy Gardening!

Awapuhi/Shampoo Ginger (Zingiber zerumbet)

Description

Zingiber zerumbet, ‘Awapuhi or Shampoo Ginger, is a perennial multipurpose herbaceous plant. The shoots, rhizomes and inflorescence liquid are all consumable. The rhizome has traditionally been used in medicinal applications as an anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, de-wormer, and for various types of pain management. The liquid from the inflorescence is drinkable. Perhaps the most well known use for ‘awapuhi is the inflorescence liquid as shampoo or conditioner for the hair and skin, as it provides a soothing, shiny and smoothing effect. This ginger relative grows to heights of about two to four feet. Like some other gingers, ‘awapuhi dies back annually to store its energy in its roots/rhizomes. From these rhizomes, the plant re-sprouts in spring, when the weather is ideal for them. ‘Awaphui can form dense thickets, so allow them to have a lot of space, or plan to manage them annually. Despite its tendency to spread, it has not been included on any invasive species lists and has been on the islands for over 1,000 years (i.e.: it’s generally not a problematic plant).

To utilize the liquid from the inflorescence: use a cup or jar and hand-squeeze the inflorescence until the juice comes out. Milking may be done repeatedly if left on the plant. If using as shampoo, you may or may not decide to rinse out the liquid dependent upon your desires.

Hand squeeze to milk inflorescence

Propagation

‘Awapuhi does not produce seed and is only propagated by division. Dig up rhizomes when dormant; divide and replant for plant replication in a separate area. Rhizomes spread on their own naturally.

Rhizomes sprouting

Care

This plant is very carefree. Plant it, let it grow and watch the flowers emerge. This plant will thrive in heavy shade and waterlogged soils. In other words, it can be planted in places where most plants will not live.

Eating

Shoots are spicy and consist of the still folded leaves as they emerge. Mature rhizomes are intensely bitter; young rhizomes are not as powerful.

Where to obtain planting materials

Ask a friend growing the plant for some rhizomes! I’ve seen this plant for sale at local nurseries, too. ‘Awapuhi is pretty easy to find, as it was a canoe plant, an ancient Polynesian introduction into Hawaii.

My Garden

When I first started my garden, I was really interested in finding all the Polynesian canoe plants. It took me awhile before I found my first ‘awapuhi plant. But finally, I got a small bit of rhizome from a neighbor that slowly established itself. A few months later, another friend gave me a bunch of his harvested “edible ginger” (Zingiber officinale). I went to eat some of the ginger and it was so intense! I used too much of it and made my meal unpalatable. For a few months, I was confused about that whole situation until I allowed some of the rhizomes he gave me to grow out. As soon as the flower came out, I knew what had happened! I accidently ate ‘awapuhi! At least I obtained some amazing medicinal benefits from that experience. Two years later, I was able to dig up that original clump and spread it around to create many more plants, some of which I planted in a waterway where not many other plants want to grow. Now I get it watch it thrive and utilize the many flowers it creates!!

Happy Gardening!